Wechsler Memory Scale®- Fourth Edition, Australian and New Zealand Language Adapted Edition
Ages 16:0 to 90:11 years
While optional, this subtest evaluates a variety of cognitive functions by asking the examinee to perform simple tasks:
This subtest assesses narrative memory under a free recall condition. Two short stories are orally presented. For older adults, one story is presented twice. The examinee is asked to recall each story from memory immediately after hearing it. The delayed condition assesses long-term narrative memory with free recall and recognition tasks. The examinee is asked to recall both stories from the immediate condition. Then the examinee is asked yes/no questions about both stories.
This subtest evaluates verbal memory for associated word pairs. After 10 or 14 word pairs are read to the examinee, the first word of each pair is read, and the examinee is asked to provide the corresponding word. There are four trials of the same list in different orders.
The delayed condition evaluates long-term recall for verbally paired information with cued recall and recognition tasks, and includes a free recall task. The examinee is orally presented with the first word of each pair learned in the immediate condition and asked to provide the corresponding word. The examinee is then read a list of word pairs and asked to identify each as either one of the word pairs he or she was asked to remember or a new word pair. Finally, during the optional word recall task, the examinee is asked to say as many of the words from the pairs as he or she can recall.
This subtest assesses memory for nonverbal visual stimuli. A series of five designs is shown, one at a time, for 10 seconds each. After each design is presented, the examinee is asked to draw the design from memory. The delayed condition assesses long-term visual-spatial memory with free recall and recognition tasks, and includes a direct copy task. First, the examinee is asked to draw the designs shown during the immediate condition from memory in any order. Second, the examinee is asked to choose which of six designs on a page matches the original design shown during the immediate condition. Third, for an optional copy task, the examinee is asked to draw the designs while looking at them.
This subtest evaluates visual working memory using novel visual stimuli. The examinee is briefly shown a series of abstract symbols on a page and then asked to select the symbols from an array of symbols, in the same order they were presented on the previous page.
This subtest assesses spatial memory for unfamiliar visual material. The examinee is shown a grid with 4-8 designs on a page for 10 seconds, which is then removed from view. The examinee then selects the designs from a set of cards and places the cards in a grid in the same place as previously shown.
The delayed condition assesses long-term spatial and visual memory with free recall and recognition tasks. First, the examinee is asked to recreate the pages shown in the immediate condition with the cards and grid. Then he or she is shown a series of grids and asked to select the two designs that are correct and in the same place as on the page shown in the immediate condition.
This subtest evaluates visual-spatial working memory using a visual addition task. The examinee is shown, sequentially, two grids with blue and red circles. The examinee is then asked to add or subtract the location of the circles based on a set of rules.